What to Plant in Your Fall Garden

Experienced gardeners know that the gardening season does not close at the end of summer!  It to to plant fall vegetables and prepare fro next season’s vegetable gardening.  But, it hardly seems logical to discuss fall planting when summer’s bounty is just getting underway, but it’s the right time to begin your plans for an autumn garden. Ideally gardeners should start preparing for fall right around the summer solstice, if not before if you live in an area with a short growing season. In most areas planting should take place from July through August and possibly September for warmer climates to allow for plenty of time for seeds and plants to grow and mature before the first autumn freeze. The average date of the first killing frost in your area is the most important thing to know when it comes to fall vegetable gardening. Your local garden center is a good source of information for this date. To determine when to start planting, find out the number of days to maturity for the vegetable. Next, count back the number of days from the first average frost date. Add a week or so to allow for a few extra days to harvest the produce once it’s mature. You will find maturity information on seed packets and some plant labels. Most everything you plant in spring you can grow in your fall garden, too. These are cool season plants, meaning they will tolerate a light frost, thrive in short daylight hours and perform best with mild temperatures. Some vegetables even taste better when nipped by a light frost and bug damage is lower in the fall time.

Last average frost FREE date for Hurricane Valley: November 1st. Adjust a few days up to a few weeks for surrounding areas.

Plants for Your Fall Vegetable Garden:

Growing Broccoli through the winter months

Fall  Broccoli

Cauliflower– Plant seedlings 6 to 8 weeks before the first frost. Cauliflower can be tricky to grow. Rich soil and consistent watering are the keys. Never let your plants dry out and young starts are best. Fluctuations in temperature, moisture and nutrients can cause the plant to “button” or produce small, undersized heads. Blanch the heads by tying the outer leaves together over the heads when they are about 2 to 3 inches across. This keeps them from turning green and becoming bitter. 60 days to maturity.

Kohlrabi – Kohlrabi is a member of cabbage family, super easy to grow, but it looks and tastes similar to a turnip. The bulbous edible portion grows just above the soil line. Shade young plants from summer sun. 40 to 60 days to maturity depending on variety.

Lettuce – Sow seeds in late summer. Provide the seedlings with consistent moisture and shade from the afternoon sun. 45 to 60 days to harvest depending on type and variety.

Mustard Greens & Mesclun Mixes – Sow seeds 6 weeks before the first frost. Seeds will germinate in soil that is 45 to 65 degrees F. Keep the soil consistently moist to encourage rapid growth and tender greens. 45 days to maturity. – Sow seeds for radishes 4 weeks before the first frost. Winter varieties such as China Rose and Giant Sicily mature slower, grow larger and store longer. They should be sown about 6 weeks before the first frost. Sow the seeds evenly so you don’t have to thin them. No feeding necessary, but soil should be fertile and well drained. They are quick to mature so check them regularly. They are ready to harvest as soon as they are of edible size. 25 to 50 days to maturity depending on variety.

 Spinach – Sow seeds 5 weeks before first frost date. The short days and cool, moist weather of fall is even better for spinach than spring. An established spinach crop will last well into winter and can survive temperatures down into the 20s. Spinach prefers very fertile soil to encourage rapid growth and tender leaves. 45 days to maturity.

Arugula – Begin sowing seeds in August every two to three weeks for continued harvest. Arugula is fast growing and should be harvested often to prevent from going to seed. Baby arugula can be harvested as early as 25 days. Larger leaves, 45 days to maturity.

Broccoli – Broccoli seedlings should be planted 10 weeks before the first frost date in your area. This means planting them during the last hot summer days so it’s important to mulch around them to help keep the ground cool and moist. Feed the plants 3 weeks after transplanting into the garden. Use a low nitrogen fertilizer. About 70 days to maturity.

Brussels Sprouts – Brussels sprouts are ideal for fall gardens because they really taste best when allowed to mature in cool weather. In my mid-South garden, summer comes too quickly to grow them in the spring garden. Set the plants out in mid to late summer. It will take about 3 months before the sprouts appear. They are ready for harvest when they are firm and green. 90 days to maturity.

Cabbage – Plant seedlings 6 to 8 weeks before the first frost. If the heat of summer is still intense when it’s time to plant in your area, give the young plants protection from sun. Cabbages are heavy feeders that require fertile soil rich in organic matter and consistent moisture. 70 days to maturity.

Other Vegetable that you can sow in the autumn: Turnips, winter and spring onions, leeks, beets, broad beans, carrots, endive, and peas. Bulbs to plant: Garlic and shallots.

Tips for fall gardens:

Plant seeds twice the depth of the seed. So, lettuce is just barely covered with soil. Use a floating row cover for newly planted seed beds. This keeps birds from eating the seed, keeps moisture in during warm days and helps control seeds from being washed away during watering.

Slightly work in Compost with digging fork and add cottonseed meal or alfalfa meal over the surface.

Keep soil moist to insure good seed germination and new transplants healthy.

If temperatures are higher than normal while planting new transplants, use a light row cover to keep young tender plants from burning.

Keep frost blanket or clouches on hand just in case of a hard, early freeze.

Leave a comment

Filed under Gardening

A Bee Friendly Garden

Yes, I do love those bees! Whether it be bumblebee, honeybee or masonbee.

Where would we be without our pollinating insects, especially bees! There importance is extraordinary.  Although not all our crops rely on insects to pollinate them, it is estimated that more than 70% of food crops rely on bees and other pollinators.  Even higher percentages with wild plants.

With the decline in bee population we can do our part by helping attract bees to our gardens with bee and pollinator friendly plants.  Even in the vegetable gardens.  You don’t have to have a specific bee garden, just add beautiful plants that attract these insects, here an there throughout your landscape.

There is a plethora of bee friendly plants but they do like certain types.  Flowers with flat landing places (umbel) and those with wide trumpets like squash flowers in sunny locations.  Bees also prefer white, yellow, violet, purple and blue flowers.  Native and heirloom varieties are best as many new hybrids are pollen-free.  Try to have at least four or five different types of plants flowering at any one time.

Some great examples of open and flat flowers are calendula, poppies, and those from the Apiaceae family such as flowering dill, parsley, fennel, carrots and Queen Ann’s lace.  Sunflowers offer a great landing pad with plenty of pollen and adds a cheeriness to the garden.  Yarrow, echinacea, tansy, clover, alyssum, catmints are all beautiful popped in here and there in sunny locations offering nectar-rich pollen.  Most plants that butterflies love, bees enjoy as well, such as the butterfly bush.  Think about edging a garden with lavender, sages and salvias.  Even sedums when flowering are wonderful attracting plants.  Edible herbs like basil, sweet marjoram, mint, oregano, rosemary, thyme, winter savory and lemon balm serve more than a purpose for the kitchen!  By adding pollinator plants you increase the biodiversity in the garden, overall better health for your garden and you!

Keep your garden clean of harmful chemical sprays!  Even organic types of pest controls should be used responsibly.  Don’t go on a spraying party for just a few pest.  Hand removal is best for those small problems.  When you truly need to spray, spray in the late evening, when all bees have returned to their hives and never spray the flowers!!

Beekeeping is becoming popular these days.  Get informed.  Take some classes from your local county extension or join bee clubs.  Become bee friendly to preserve our future!

Looking for a seed collection of bee friendly plants?  Click on the link and you’ll find a A Bee Seed Collection .

Leave a comment

Filed under Bees, Gardening

Beautiful Monarda Attracts Beneficials

Brillant beautiful Monarda lands in many places in my gardens as a favorite perennial.  This easy to care for perennial has a lot going for it!  Besides its easy care, it attracts nectar seeking hummingbirds, butterflies, honey bees and the humble bumble bee.

Monarda is commonly known as bee balm, but is also known as wild bergamot, bergamot mint, horsemint, wild oregano and Oswego tea.  It comes in an array of pink, red, white and purple colors and some even have double-flowers.

Monarda is not to persnickety in our garden, but in hot climates light shade keeps the leaves from burning out and it does best if it isn’t allowed to dry out the first year while establishing its root system.  Most Monarda varieties seem to adapt to most soil conditions, but bloom better in well-drained rich soil.  Prepare planting site by loosening soil to the depth of 12-15 inches with a digging fork, then add a 2 to 4 inch layer of compost.  Each spring add a new layer of compost to retain moisture.  Remove spent flowers to keep plants looking tidy.  After frost arrives in fall or winter, plants will die back to the ground and it’s time to cut back to one or two inches above soil line.  Plants can be divided in early spring to keep them looking healthy and the bonus…More plants!

My favorite herb garden has a nice clump of Monarda of various sizes and colors.  I suggest a chair nearby to take a few minutes and enjoy the bumblebees and other flying friends that come and visit!  Now if that doesn’t relax you, I don’t know what would!

Monarda isn’t just for looks though, it’s a fabulous remedy for a sore throat.  Harvest a handful of leaves and flowers and let them wilt. Once they have wilted (12 hours will work), infuse/submerge them into some local raw honey and let them sit for at least 4 weeks.  Strain out the plant material after the four weeks and transfer honey into a dry bottle and label. Take 1-2 teaspoons as needed for sore throats and coughs.

 

3 Comments

Filed under Bees, Flower Gardens, Gardening, Herbs

Check Your Stored Garlic Now!

Garlic that was harvested in the summer and stored for winter use should be looked over now!  Garlic bulbs start to sprout as spring approaches. 
Discard any soft bulbs and set out any with green tips.   We roast any garlic that shows the smallest signs of green shoots.  Once the bulbs begin green shoots, the rest will quickly follow.  Roasting is a great way to store longer.  

Remove any green shoots off the cloves, drizzle with some olive oil, sprinkle with a bit of sea salt.  Roast in the oven at 350 degrees for 30 minutes or until soft.  

Put them back into storage!  Once garlic is cool, slip the cloves out of their skin and place into a clean sealable jar and cover with olive oil.  Cover tightly.  Adding a sprig of thyme or rosemary adds more flavor.  Use the sweet-tasting cloves to flavor soups, stews or use in artisan breads (my favorite)

Sprouting Garlic

Sprouting Garlic

2 Comments

Filed under Preserving